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Frequently asked questions for selenium.

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Frequently asked questions for selenium.

Post by QA-Opening on Fri Sep 04, 2015 12:35 pm

1. Difference between Absolute path & Relative path.

Absolute path will start with root path (/) and Relative path will from current path (//)

2. Tell me some TestNG Annotations.


3. What are desired capabilities?

Desired Capabilities help to set properties for the Web Driver. A typical use case would be to
set the path for the Firefox Driver if your local installation doesn't correspond to the default

4. Difference between Selenium RC and Selenium
Web driver.

Selenium RC:
a. Selenium RC’s architecture is way more complicated.
b. Selenium RC is slower since it uses a JavaScript program called Selenium Core. This Selenium Core is the one that directly controls the browser, c. not you.
c. Selenium Core, just like other JavaScript codes, can access disabled elements.
d. Selenium RC’s API is more matured but contains redundancies and often confusing commands.
e. Selenium RC cannot support the headless HtmlUnit browser. It needs a real, visible browser to operate on.
f. Selenium RC Has Built-In Test Result Generator. Selenium RC automatically generates an HTML file of test results.
g. Selenium RC needs the help of the RC Server in order to do so.
h. Selenium RC can support new browsers

Selenium Web driver
a. Web Driver’s architecture is simpler than Selenium RC’s.
b. Web Driver is faster than Selenium RC since it speaks directly to the browser uses the browser’s own engine to control it.
c. Web Driver interacts with page elements in a more realistic way.
d. web Driver’s API is simpler than Selenium RC’s. It does not contain redundant and confusing commands.
e. web Driver can support the headless HtmlUnit browser.
f. Web Driver has no built-in command that automatically generates a Test Results File.
g. web Driver directly talks to the browser
h. cannot readily support new browsers

5. Difference between Web driver listener and
TestNG Listener.

TestNG and Web driver Listener have different interfaces to implement and call them. They both
modify respective behaviour. You can use Listeners in Annotation. Below 2 URL gives the
detailed list of listener and their interfaces.

6. Describe your framework.

7. Which is the best way to locate an element?

Finding elements by ID is usually going to be the fastest option, because at its root, it eventually calls down to document.getElementById(), which is optimized by many browsers.

Finding elements by XPath is useful for finding elements using very complex selectors, and is the most flexible selection strategy, but it has the potential to be very slow, particularly in IE. In IE 6, 7, or 8, finding by XPath can be an order of magnitude slower than doing the same in Firefox. IE provides no native XPath-over-HTML solution, so the project must use a JavaScript XPath implementation, and the JavaScript engine in legacy versions of IE really is that much slower.

If you have a need to find an element using a complex selector, I usually recommend using CSS Selectors, if possible. It's not quite as flexible as XPath, but will cover many of the same cases, without exhibiting the extreme performance penalty on IE that XPath can.

8. Why we refer Firefox driver to the web driver

web Driver driver = new FireFoxDriver();

WebDriver is an interface which contain several abstract methods such as get(...), findElamentBy(...) etc.

We simply create reference of web Driver and we can assign objects (Firefox driver, CromeDriver, IEDriver, Andriod driver etc) to it.

Ex :

WebDriver driver = new FireFoxDriver();-----------(1)

If we are using (1) we can do the same thing by using

FireFoxDriver driver = new FireFoxDriver();---------(2)

We can use (1) and (2) for same purpose but if we want to switch to another browser in same program

then again we have to create the object of other class as for example

CromeDriver driver = new CromeDriver();.

creating object of several class is not good. So we create the reference of WebDriver and

we assign the objects of another class as for example

WebDriver driver; // it is created only one time in the program

driver = new FireFoxDriver();// any where in the program

driver = new CromeDriver(); // any where in the program

9. What are the features of TestNG?

TestNG is a testing framework designed to simplify a broad range of testing needs, from
unit testing (testing a class in isolation of the others) to integration testing (testing entire
systems made of several classes, several packages and even several external frameworks,
such as application servers). You can use test suite,annotations, automatically generation
of report and much more.

10. What is the difference between thread.Sleep()
and selenium. Set Speed ("2000")?

If the application is taking time to load the page then we use selenium.waitforpageload(" "). This command is doesn’t wait upto the given time whenever the page load is completed.

If the application is taking time to refresh the page, then we use Thread. Sleep ( ).it is a standard wait it simply wait to the given time.


1. Takes a single argument in string format

Ex: selenium.setSpeed("2000") - will wait for 2 seconds

2. Runs each command in after setSpeed delay by the number of milliseconds mentioned in set Speed.


1. Takes a single argument in integer format

ex: thread. Sleep(2000) - will wait for 2 seconds

2. Waits for only once at the command given at sleep.

11. In what situation selenium finding element
get fails?

· Element loading issue
· Dynamic id of web element

12. What is the difference between "GET" and

"NAVIGATE" to open a web page in selenium
web driver?

Get method will get a page to load or get page source or get text that's all whereas navigate
will guide through the history like refresh, back, forward.For example if we want to move
forward and do some functionality and back to the home page this can be achieved
through navigate() only. driver.get will wait till the whole page gets loaded and driver.navigate
will just redirect to that page and will not wait

13. Please tell me the difference b/w implicitly
Wait and Explicit wait.

Implicit Wait sets internally a timeout that will be used for all consecutive Web Element searches. It will try lookup the element again and again for the specified amount of time before throwing a NoSuchElementException if the element could not have been found. It does only this and can't be forced into anything else - it waits for elements to show up.

Explicit Wait or just Wait is a one-timer used by you for a particular search. It is more extendible in the means that you can set it up to wait for any condition you might like. Usually, you can use some of the prebuilt Expected Conditions to wait for elements to become clickable, visible, invisible, etc., or just write your own condition that suits your needs.

14. How we can retrieve the dynamically changing
Ids? When we login Facebook the login label's id
changes dynamically thus resulting in failure.

We have a hierarchy of locators and Facebook Is dynamic in nature,so we are not able to
use "id" for identification for after that we have remaining 7 locator's for that :2. xpath ()..
3. name..4. css.. 5. link text.. 6. partiallinktext...7.tag name. so u can use any one for
identifying it. Most probably u can use "xpath" or "css-locator" and if there r tag then
link text or partial-link text. it depend on u . But we never use id's in Ajax application
because it’s not possible.

15.What is the difference between driver.Close()
and driver.Quit () method?

Close() - It is used to close the browser or page currently which is having the focus.

Quit() - It is used to shut down the web driver instance or destroy the web driver instance
(Close all the windows)

16. How to scroll web element?--not browser—

FirefoxProfile profile=new FirefoxProfile();


WebDriver driver=new FirefoxDriver(profile);



WebElement element=driver.findElement(By.xpath("//div[@id='draggable']"));

Actions actn=new Actions(driver);

actn.dragAndDropBy(element, 50, 50).build().perform();


17. What is the basic use of Firefox profiles and
how can we use them using selenium?

A profile in Firefox is a collection of bookmarks, browser settings, extensions, passwords,
and history; in short, all of your personal settings.

We use them to change user agent, changing default download directory, changing versions etc.

18. Customize the name of file going to be

You have to download AUTO IT.exe file and has to be install

and later you have create .au3 file (in this file you have to specify the commands in
VB script like your file name, where have to save, it will be easy may be 3 or 4 steps )
using AUTOIT...then right click the .au3 file you have to compile ....after that you will
get the .exe file with the name of .au3 file ..In eclipse you will give the code like this

<----ProcessBuildder ps = new ProcessBuilder("path of the .exe file of au3") .start();--->

19. How to handle internationalisation through
web driver?

FirefoxProfile profile = new FirefoxProfile();

profile.set Preference("intl.accept_languages","jp");

Web driver driver = new FirefoxDriver(profile); driver.get( will open google in
Japanese Lang

20. How to overcome same origin policy through
web driver?

· Proxy server.
DesiredCapabilities capability=new DesiredCapabilities.firefox();

capability.setCapability(CapabilityType.PROXY,"your desire proxy")

WebDriver driver=new FirefoxDriver(capability);

21. How to put text in Facebook search box using
selenium web driver.

· driver.findElement(By.xpath("//div[contains(@class, '_586i')]")).sendKeys("abc");

22. Difference between flex and flash application.

In flash there is no code just based on creativity(design) we will complete the
work(time consuming process) whereas flex contain some small functions
which is integrated with mxml,PHP..(no tool is there to develop

flex we want to use the properties of css and style sheet)

23. What is Error Collector in TestNG?
What is its use?

This class allows the collection of errors during the process of retrieving the
test data for the test method parameters

24. How can we get the font size, font color,
font type used for a particular text on a web
page using Selenium web driver?

driver.findelement(By.Xpath("Xpath ").getcssvalue("font-size);

driver.findelement(By.Xpath("Xpath ").getcssvalue("font-colour);

driver.findelement(By.Xpath("Xpath ").getcssvalue("font-type);

driver.findelement(By.Xpath("Xpath ").getcssvalue("background-colour);

25. How to run tests in multiple browser parallel?
Is there any other option other than selenium grid?

You create a class with a method something like this:

public class LaunchBrowser {

WebDriver driver=null;

// Pass parameter browser from test.xml
public void initiateBrowser(String browser){

// compare browser to fire fox and then open firefox driver

driver = new FirefoxDriver();
\ set path to the IE driver correctly here
System.setProperty("", "\iexploredriver.exe");
driver =new InternetExplorerDriver();

Now create YourClassName class and call extend the above class something like this

public class YourClassName extends LaunchBrowser{

public void gotoGoogle(){


26. How to prepare Customized html Report using
TestNG in hybrid framework.

Below are the 3 ways:

• Junit: with the help of ANT.

• TestNG: using inbuilt default.html to get the HTML report. Also XST reports from ANT,

Selenium, TestNG combination.

• Using our own customized reports using XSL jar for converting XML content to HTML.

27. “What’s the hierarchy of TestNG annotations?

Explain me about annotation hierarchy & execution

org.testng.annotations.Parameters (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.Listeners (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.Test (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.AfterMethod (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.BeforeTest (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.BeforeMethod (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.Optional (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.AfterTest (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.Guice (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.BeforeGroups (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.ExpectedExceptions (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.TestInstance (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.NoInjection (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.AfterSuite (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.AfterClass (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.AfterGroups (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.DataProvider (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.BeforeSuite (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.BeforeClass (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.Factory (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.Configuration (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)
org.testng.annotations.ObjectFactory (implements java.lang.annotation.Annotation)

28. How the TestNG interacts with Selenium Core?

Explain me steps and internal architecture?"

What is TestNG?
So far we had been doing Selenium tests without generating a proper format for the test results. From this point on, we shall tackle how to make these reports using a test framework called TestNG.

TestNG is a testing framework that overcomes the limitations of another popular testing framework called JUnit. The "NG" means "Next Generation". Most Selenium users use this more than JUnit because of its advantages. There are so many features of TestNG, but we will only focus on the most important ones that we can use in Selenium.Advantages of TestNG over JUnit
There are three major advantages of TestNG over JUnit:

Annotations are easier to understand
Test cases can be grouped more easily
Parallel testing is possible
29. Is it possible test web services using selenium?

Using Jmeter we can test how one website is talking to each other means time taken to
send data, feeds, messages from one website to other website. Jmeter does a nice job
of doubling for performance and api tests.

30. How to refresh a page without using context

1.Using sendKeys.Keys method

2.Using navigate.refresh() method

3.Using navigate.refresh() method

4.Using get() method

5.Using sendKeys() method

1.Using sendKeys.Keys method



2.Using navigate.refresh() method



3.Using method



4.Using get() method



5.Using sendKeys() method



31. Can u send a code for printing in selenium?

There are two cases:

Case1. Any hyperlink/button on a web page, n clicking that link/button a print dialog box
opens. (Performing an action on web page)

Case2.or do u want to open print dialog box within ur own script, not by performing any
action on web page.

So If Case 1: just a call for event will work to open it.

If Case 2: Call a Printer Job object (Use Awt API).

For code: Google it.

32. How to find broken images in a page using
Selenium Web driver.

1. Get xpath and then using tag name; get all the links in the page

2. Click on each and every link in the page

3. In the target page title, look for 404/500 error.

How to find broken images in a page using Selenium
package programs;

import java.util.List;
import org.apache.http.HttpResponse;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpGet;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.DefaultHttpClient;
import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver;

public class findbrokenimages {
static int invalidimg;
static WebDriver driver ;
public static void main(String[] args) {
try {
driver = new FirefoxDriver();
invalidimg = 0;
List allImages = driver.findElements(By.tagName("img"));
System.out.println("Total images are " + allImages.size());
for (int i = 0; i < allImages.size(); i++) {
WebElement img = (WebElement) allImages.get(i);
if (img != null) {

System.out.println("Total invalid images are " + invalidimg);
} catch (Exception e) {

public static void verifyimgActive(WebElement img) {
try {
HttpResponse response = new DefaultHttpClient().execute(new HttpGet(img.getAttribute("src")));
if (response.getStatusLine().getStatusCode() != 200)
catch (Exception e) {

33. How to handle Ajax popup window?

By using getWindowHandles() and obj.switchTo.window(windowid) we can handle popups using
explicit wait and driver.swtchT0.window("name") commands for your requirements.

34. How to handle auto complete box in web driver?

How to handle autocomplete box in web driver
How to handle autocomplete box in web driver?

driver.findElement("your searchBox")).sendKeys("your partial keyword");


List <WebElement> listItems = driver.findElements(By.xpath("your list item locator"));


driver.findElement("your searchButton")).click();

35. How to get the name of browser using Web Driver?

public class JsExecute


WebDriver driver;

JavascriptExecutor js;


public void setUp() throws Exception


driver=new FirefoxDriver();




public void test()


JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor) driver;

System.out.println(js.executeScript("return navigator.appCodeName"));



String s = (String) ((JavascriptExecutor) driver).executeScript("return navigator.userAgent;");

System.out.println("Browser name : " + s);

36. How to handle colors in web driver?

Use getCssValue(arg0) function to get the colors by sending 'color' string as an argument.


String col = driver.findElement("color");

37. How to pass parameters from testng.xml into
test case.

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.htmlunit.HtmlUnitDriver;
import org.testng.annotations.BeforeTest;
import org.testng.annotations.Parameters;
import org.testng.annotations.Test;

public class Parallelexecution {

private WebDriver driver = null;

@Parameters({ "BROWSER" })
public void setup(String BROWSER) {
System.out.println("Browser: " + BROWSER);

if (BROWSER.equals("FF")) {
System.out.println("Firefox Browser is selected");
driver = new FirefoxDriver();
} else if (BROWSER.equals("IE")) {
System.out.println("Internet Explorer Browser is selected");
driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();
} else if (BROWSER.equals("HU")) {
System.out.println("Html Unit Browser is selected");
driver = new HtmlUnitDriver();
} else if (BROWSER.equals("CH")) {
System.out.println("Google chrome Browser is selected");
driver = new ChromeDriver();

public void testParallel() throws Exception {


38. How to get text from captcha image??


String attr = ie.findElement(By.xpath(".//*[@id='SkipCaptcha']")).getAttribute("value");

System.out.println("The value of the attribute 'Name' is " + attr);

39. Is there a way to click hidden LINK in web driver?

String Block1 = driver.findElement("element ID"));

JavascriptExecutor js1=(JavascriptExecutor)driver;


40. What Class Extends Web Driver?

· AndroidDriver, ChromeDriver, EventFiringWebDriver, FirefoxDriver, HtmlUnitDriver,
InternetExplorerDriver, IPhoneDriver, PhantomJSDriver, RemoteWebDriver, SafariDriver

41. What are the APIs that support Web Driver?

· API are nothing but collection of all selenium commands for Locating UI Elements
(WebElements),Fetching a Page,User Input etc…

42. How to disable cookies in browser.

· Using deleteAllVisibleCookies() in selenium

43. "We have heard about frameworks well it can be
broadly classified into these TDD, BDD and ATDD frameworks .What’s the Difference?"

TDD- Test Driven Development, Behaviour Driven Development & Acceptance TestDriven Development
Well, you could see the above Acronyms buzzing over all Automation folks. I was not sure on what it means and How it differs each other. How each methodology will benefit? and where exactly it will help in the Development Life cycle.

Finally, after some analysis I had found out the differences and posting it here. Readers are always welcomed to correct me if I am wrong.

First lets list out what exactly each methodology does means

TDD – Test Driven Development

Its also called test-driven design, is a method of software development in which unit testing is repeatedly done on source code. Write your tests watch it fails and then refactor it. The concept is we write these tests to check if the code we wrote works fine. After each test, refactoring is done and then the same or a similar test is performed again. The process is iterated as many times as necessary until each unit is functionally working as expected. TDD was introduced first by XP. I believe I have explained enough in simple terms.

BDD – Behaviour Driven Development

Behavior-driven development combines the general techniques and principles of TDD with ideas from domain-driven design

DDD-Domain Driven Testing
BDD is similar in many ways to TDD except that the word “test” is replaced with the word “Behaviour”. It’s purpose is to help the the folks devising the system (i.e., the developer) identify appropriate tests to write–that is, tests that reflect the behavior desired by the stakeholders. BDD is usually done in very English-like language helps the Domain experts to understand the implementation rather than exposing the code level tests. Its defined in a GWT format, GIVEN WHEN & THEN.

44. How to change user agent in Firefox by selenium
web driver.

FirefoxProfile profile = new FirefoxProfile();

profile.setPreference("general.useragent.override", "some UA string");

Web Driver driver = new FirefoxDriver(profile);

45. What is Selenese?

Selenese is HTML language based command, which is used in Selenium IDE.

46. Differences between QTP and selenium.

1) Selenium generates a proxy while starting browser. QTP does not

2) QTP uses only Vb script. Selenium is available in many languages

3) QTP is paid and selenium is free.

4) You can run script from a particular line in QTP but in selenium, you cannot.

5) Selenium works on all browsers. QTP only works on IE, mozilla. Support from chrome has been introduced lately.

6) QTP is more organized and user friendly

7) Selenium requires more technical skills

Cool QTP can also be used on desktop based applications but selenium cannot be used

47. What is the MOST challenging test problem in my

career in Automation?

In my career

· Changing XPATHS' between testing server and production server-by keeping generic xpath
· Keep separate property files for production and UAT
· automating flash apps
· Mobile Automation

48. “Suppose developer changed the existing image to

new image with same xpath. Is test case pass or fail?"

· Pass

49. How to handle network latency using selenium?

· Using driver.manage.pageLoadingtime for network latency

50. How does u handle dynamic elements without using

xpath (with example?)

· By using classname or css.

51. What are the different types of driver implementation?

· AndroidDriver, AndroidWebDriver, ChromeDriver, EventFiringWebDriver, FirefoxDriver, HtmlUnitDriver, InternetExplorerDriver, IPhoneDriver, IPhoneSimulatorDriver, RemoteWebDriver, SafariDriver, WebDriverBackedSelenium

52. Code for Opening Firefox browser?

· Webdriver driver=new FireFoxdriver();

53. Which repository you have used to store the test

I have created scripts in excel file and store them in Test cases folder under src .

54. How to work with radio button in web driver?

We can select the value from the drop down by using 3 methods.

selectByVisibleText - select by the text displayed in drop down

selectByIndex - select by index of option in drop down

selectByValue - select by value of option in drop down

<select id="44"> <option value="1">xyz</option>

<option value="2">abc</option>

<option value="3">pqr</option>


WebElement e = driver.findElement("44"));

Select selectElement=new Select(e);

// both of the below statements will select first option in the weblist



55. How to work with dynamic web table?

You can get the total number of <tr> tags within a <td> tag by giving the xpath of the
<td> element by using this function -

List<WebElement> ele = driver.findElements(By.xpath("Xpath of the table"));

Now you can use a for each loop to loop through each of the <tr> tags in the above list
and then read each value by using getText() method.

56. Detail about TestNG Test Output folder.

It is the directory where reports are generated. Every time tests run in a suite, TestNG
creates index.html and other files in the output directory.

57. In frame if no frame Id as well as no frame
name then which attribute I should consider
throughout our script.

You can go like this.....driver.findElements(By.xpath("//iframe"))...

Then it will return List of frames then switch to each and every frame and search for
the locator which you want then break the loop

58. What is object repository?

It is collection of object names their properties, attributes and their values .It maye be
excel, XML,property file or text file

59. TestNG vs. Junit?

Advantages of TestNG over Junit

 In Junit we have to declare @BeforeClass and @AfterClass which is a constraint where as in TestNG there is no constraint like this.

 Additional Levels of setUp/tearDown level are available in TestNG like @Before/AfterSuite,@Before/AfterTest and @Before/AfterGroup

 No Need to extend any class in TestNG.

 There is no method name constraint in TestNG as in Junit. You can give any name to the test methods in TestNG

 In TestNG we can tell the test that one method is dependent on another method where as in Junit this is not possible. In Junit each test is independent of another test.

 Grouping of testcases is available in TestNG where as the same is not available in Junit.

 Execution can be done based on Groups. For ex. If you have defined many cases and segregated them by defining 2 groups as Sanity and Regression. Then if you only want to execute the “Sanity” cases then just tell TestNG to execute the “Sanity” and TestNG will automatically execute the cases belonging to the “Sanity” group.

 Also using TestNG your selenium test case execution can be done in parallel.

60. What is the difference between @before
method and @beforeclass.

In JUnit4 @Before is used to execute set of preconditions before executing a test.
For example, if there is a need to open some application and create a user before
executing a test, then this annotation can be used for that method. Method that is
marked with @Before will be executed before executing every test in the class.

If a JUnit test case class contains lot of tests which all together need a method
which sets up a precondition and that needs to be executed before executing the
Test Case class then we can utilise “@BeforeClass” annotation.

61. What are the different Parameters for @Test

Parameters are keywords that modify the annotation’s function.

62. Can we run group of test cases using TestNG?

Test cases in group in Selenium using TestNG will be executed with the below options.

If you want to execute the test cases based on one of the group like regression test or smoke test

@Test(groups = {"regressiontest", "smoketest"})

63. Differences between Selenium web driver,
IDE and RC?

64. How to highlight an object like qtp/uft does
through selenium and java?

public void highlightElement(WebDriver driver, WebElement element) {

for (int i = 0; i < 2; i++)


JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor) driver;

js.executeScript("arguments[0].setAttribute('style', arguments[1]);", element, "color: yellow; border: 2px solid yellow;");

js.executeScript("arguments[0].setAttribute('style', arguments[1]);", element, "");


Call the highlightElement method and pass webdriver and WebElement which you want to highlight as arguments.

65. What are the different assertions in SIDE?

Assertions are like Accessors, but they verify that the state of the application conforms to what is expected. Examples include "make sure the page title is X" and "verify that this checkbox is checked".

All Selenium Assertions can be used in 3 modes: "assert", "verify", and "waitFor".

For example, you can "assertText", "verifyText" and "waitForText". When an "assert" fails, the test is aborted. When a "verify" fails, the test will continue execution, logging the failure. This allows a single "assert" to ensure that the application is on the correct page, followed by a bunch of "verify" assertions to test form field values, labels, etc.

"waitFor" commands wait for some condition to become true (which can be useful for testing Ajax applications). They will succeed immediately if the condition is already true. However, they will fail and halt the test if the condition does not become true within the current timeout setting (see the setTimeout action below).

66. How to store a value which is text box using
web driver?

driver.findElement("your Textbox")).sendKeys("your keyword");

67. How to handle alerts and confirmation boxes.

Confirmation boxes and Alerts are handled in same way in selenium.

var alert = driver.switchTo().alert();

alert.dismiss(); //Click Cancel or Close window operation

alert.accept(); //Click OK

Handle Confirmation boxes via JavaScript,

driver.executeScript("window.confirm = function(message){return true;};");

68. How to mouse hover on an element?

Actions action = new Actions(webdriver);

WebElement we = webdriver.findElement(By.xpath("html/body/div[13]/ul/li[4]/a"));


69. How to switch between the windows?

private void handlingMultipleWindows(String windowTitle) {

Set<String> windows = driver.getWindowHandles();

for (String window : windows) {


if (driver.getTitle().contains(windowTitle)) { return; } } }

70. How to switch between frames?

WebDriver's driver.switchTo().frame() method takes one of the three possible arguments:

 A number.

Select a frame by its (zero-based) index. That is, if a page has three frames, the first frame would be at index "0", the second at index "1" and the third at index "2". Once the frame has been selected, all subsequent calls on the WebDriver interface are made to that frame.

 A name or ID.

Select a frame by its name or ID. Frames located by matching name attributes are always given precedence over those matched by ID.

 A previously found WebElement.

Select a frame using its previously located WebElement.

Get the frame by it's id/name or locate it by driver.findElement() and you'll be good.

71. What is actions class in web driver?

Actions class with web Driver help is Sliding element, Resizing an Element, Drag & Drop,

hovering a mouse, especially in a case when dealing with mouse over menus.

Dragging & Dropping an Element:

import org.openqa.selenium.By;

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;

import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;

import org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver;

import org.openqa.selenium.interactions.Actions;

public class testDragandDrop {

public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();


WebElement draggable = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id='draggable']"));

WebElement droppable = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id='droppable']"));

Actions action = new Actions(driver);

action.dragAndDrop(draggable, droppable).perform();



Sliding an Element:

import org.openqa.selenium.By;

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;

import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;

import org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver;

import org.openqa.selenium.interactions.Actions;

public class testSlider {


* @param args

* @throws InterruptedException


public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();


WebElement slider = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id='slider']/a"));

Actions action = new Actions(driver);


action.dragAndDropBy(slider, 90, 0).perform();



Re-sizing an Element:

import org.openqa.selenium.By;

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;

import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;

import org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver;

import org.openqa.selenium.interactions.Actions;

public class testResizable {

public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();


WebElement resize = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id='resizable']/div[3]"));

Actions action = new Actions(driver);

action.dragAndDropBy(resize, 400, 200).perform();



72. Difference between the selenium1.0 and
selenium 2.0?

Selenium 1 = Selenium Remote Control.

Selenium 2 = Selenium Web driver, which combines elements of Selenium 1 and Web driver.

73. Difference between find element () and
findelements ()?

findElement() :

Find the first element within the current page using the given "locating mechanism".

Returns a single WebElement.

findElements() :

Find all elements within the current page using the given "locating mechanism".

Returns List of Web Elements.

74. How to take the screen shots in seelnium2.0?

// store screenshots
public static void captureScreenShot(String filePath) {
File scrFile = ((TakesScreenshot)driver).getScreenshotAs(OutputType.FILE);
try {
FileUtils.copyFile(scrFile, new File(filePath));
} catch (IOException e) {
// TODO Auto-generated catch block


75. What is the default time for selenium Ide and

Default timeout in selenium ide is 30 seconds.

76. Write down scenarios which we can't automate?

Barcode Reader, Captcha etc.

77. In TestNG I have some test's Test1-Test2-
Test3-Test4-Test5I want to run my execution
order is Test5-Test1-Test3-Test2-Test4.How
do you set the execution order can you explain
for that?

· Use priority parameter in @test annotation or TestNG annotations.

78. Differences between jxl and ApachePOI.

· jxl does not support XLSX files
· jxl exerts less load on memory as compared to ApachePOI
· jxl doesn't support rich text formatting while ApachePOI does.
· jxl has not been maintained properly while ApachePOI is more up to date.
· Sample code on Apache POI is easily available as compare to jxl.

79. How to ZIP files in Selenium with an Example?

// Sample Function to make zip of reports
public static void zip(String filepath){
File inputFolder=new File('Mention file path her");
File outputFolder=new File("");
ZipOutputStream out = new ZipOutputStream(new BufferedOutputStream(new FileOutputStream(outputFolder)));
BufferedInputStream in = null;
byte[] data = new byte[1000];
String files[] = inputFolder.list();
for (int j=0; j<files.length; i++)
in = new BufferedInputStream(new FileInputStream
(inputFolder.getPath() + "/" + files[j]), 1000);
out.putNextEntry(new ZipEntry(files[j]));
int totalcount;
while((totalcount=,0,1000)) != -1)
out.write(data, 0, totalcount);
catch(Exception e)
return "Fail - " + e.getMessage();

80. What is default port no?


81. If Default port no is busy how to change port no?

We can use any port number which is valid.. First create an object to remote control configuration.
Use 'setPort' method and provide valid port number(4545,5555,5655, etc).. There after attach this
remote control configuration object to selenium server..i.e

RemoteControlConfiguration r= new RemoteControlConfiguration();


SeleniumServer s= new SeleniumServer(r);

82. Does Selenium support https protocols?


83. Majorly asked test scenario with framework in

Majorly asked are:

· Login for Gmail scenario

· Goggle search and finding no of results

· Downloading a file and save it

· Checking mails and deleting them

· Do shopping in

84. Selenium support mobile applications?

No, it is browser automation tool, it only automates Websites opening in mobile browser, and mobile APPs

can't be automated.

85. What is wraps Driver?

For casting selenium instance to selenium2 (webdriver). wraps driver is used.

For more details.

86. Can you explain Junit Annotation? If there are
1000 test cases. 500 test cases are executed. How
will you execute the rest of the test cases by using annotation?"

The annotations generated with JUnit 4 tests in Selenium are:

1. @Before public void method() - Will perform the method() before each test. This method
can prepare the test

2. @Test public void method() - Annotation @Test identifies that this method is a test
method.environment,e.g. read input data, initialize the class)

3. @After public void method() - Test method must start with test@Before - this annotation
is used for executing a method before

87. Difference between assert and verify in selenium
web driver.

· When an “assert” fails, the test will be aborted. Assert is best used when the
check value has to pass for the test to be able to continue to run log in.
· Where if a “verify” fails, the test will continue executing and logging the failure.
Verify is best used to check non critical things. Like the presence of a
headline element.

88. "I want to find the location of ""b"" in the below
code, how can I find out without using xpath, name,
id, csslocator, index.<div>




 driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[contains(text(),'b')]")).click(); or

 //div/button[contains(text(),'b']


89. How to do Applet testing using selenium?

// selenium setup
selenium = new DefaultJavaSelenium("localhost",4444, browserString , url);

// get the appletfixure to control fest JAppletFixture
AppletFixture dialog = selenium.applet(LIST_APPLET_ID)

// fest similar API for autmation testing
90. Name 5 different exceptions you had in
selenium web driver and mention what instance
you got it and how do you resolve it?

· WebDriverException
· NoAlertPresentException
· NoSuchWindowException
· NoSuchElementException
· TimeoutException

91. How do you manage the code versions in
your project?

· Using SVN or other versioning tools

92. Latest version of Firefox and selenium in
market and the version on which you are testing
which you are testing.

· FF Latest version till Dec,2013 for windows7,64 bit :26.0.I use FF 25.0.1 (ur ans. may differ)
· Selenium web driver latest version till dec,2013- 2.39.0 I use selenium 2.37 see latest at

93. How to know all the methods supported in
web driver

and its syntax.

· In Org.openqa.selenium package, web driver interface has all the main methods that can
be used in Selenium Web driver


94. How do you create html test report from
your test script?

• I would see below 3 ways:

• Junit: with the help of ANT.

• TestNG: using inbuilt default.html to get the HTML report. Also XLST reports from ANT,

Selenium, TestNG combination.

• Using our own customized reports using XSL jar for converting XML content to HTML.

95. List the browsers, OS supported by the Selenium

Windows Linux Mac



Safari Y N Y

Opera Y Y Y

Chrome Y Y Y

96. Can you explain Selenium Mobile Automation?

import junit . framework . TestCase ;

import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;

public class OneTest extends TestCase {

public void testGoogle() throws Exception {
WebDriver driver = new AndroidDriver();

// And now use this to visit Google

// Find the text input element by its name
WebElement element = driver.findElement("q"));

// Enter something to search for

// Now submit the form. WebDriver will find the form for us from the element

// Check the title of the page
System.out.println("Page title is: " + driver.getTitle());

97. What mobile devices it may Support?

Selenium Web driver supports all the mobile devices operating on Android, IOS operating Systems

· Android – for phones and tablets (devices & emulators)
· iOS for phones (devices & emulators) and for tablets (devices & emulators)

98. What is the difference between single and
double slash

in Xpath?


1.It starts selection from the document node

2. It Allows you to create 'absolute' path expressions

3. e.g “/html/body/p” matches all the paragraph elements


1. It starts selection matching anywhere in the document

2. It Allows you to create 'relative' path expressions

3. e.g“//p” matches all the paragraph elements

99. What are the test types supported by Selenium?

Selenium supports UI and functional testing. As well it can support performance testing

for reasonable load using selenium grid.

100. In what all case we have to go for
“JavaScript executor”.


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