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Manual Testing Interview Question Part 1

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Manual Testing Interview Question Part 1

Post by QA-Opening on Sat Sep 05, 2015 5:16 pm

1. Can you tell me about yourself?
Answer: In my QA career, I have been working on various system platforms and operating systems like Windows 95, Windows 2000, Windows XP and UNIX. I have tested applications developed in Java, C++, Visual Basic and so on. I have tested Web-based applications as well as client server applications.
As a QA person, I have written Test Plans, Test Cases, attended walkthrough meetings with the Business Analysts, Project Managers, Business Managers and QA Leads. Attended requirement review meetings and provided feedback to the Business Analysts. I have worked in different databases like Oracle and DB2, wrote SQL queries to retrieve data from the database.
As far as different types of testing is concerned, I have performed Smoke Testing, Functional Testing, Backend Testing, BlackBox Testing, Integration Testing, Regression Testing and UAT (User Acceptance Testing) Testing. I have participated in Load Testing and Stress Testing.
I have written defects as they are found using ClearQuest and TestDirector. Once the defects were fixed, retested them and if the passed, closed them. If the defects were not fixed, then reopened them. I have also attended the defect assessment meetings as necessary.
In the meantime, a continuous interaction with developers was necessary.
This is pretty much what I have been doing as a QA person.

2. What did you do in your last project?
In my last project, the application was a web-based application developed in Java platform. As a QA Person, I wrote Test Plans from the requirement documents and Use Cases. I performed Smoke Testing, Functional Testing, Backend Testing, BlackBox Testing, Integration Testing, Regression Testing and UAT (User Acceptance Testing). I have participated in Load Testing and Stress Testing. I attended several walkthrough meetings for requirement reviews and provided feedback to the Business Analysts. Mostly, I was in the backend testing, which required writing SQL queries directly to the database.
Besides these, I wrote defects using ClearQuest. Once the defects were fixed, retested them and if the passed, closed them. If the defects were not fixed, then reopened them.

3. Have you written Test Plan? What is a Test Plan? What does it include?
Yes.
What is a Test Plan?
A Test Plan is a document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of intended testing activities. It identifies test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks and who will do each task (roles and responsibilities) and any risks and its solutions.
What does it include? A Test Plan includes Heading, Revision History, Table of Contents, Introduction, Scope, Approach, Overview, different types of testing that will be carried out, what software and hardware will be required, issues, risks, assumptions and sign off section.
Click here to see how a complete Test_Plan_Sample looks like.

4.  Have you written a Test Case?
Yes.
What is a Test Case? What does it include?
A Test Case is a document that describes step by step process how to test the application. A Test Case includes Test Case ID, Steps Description, Expected Output, Actual Output, Pass/Fail, Remarks.
Click here to see how a complete Test Case looks like.

5.  How many Test Cases did you write in your last project?
Answer:  I wrote about 1100 Test Cases in my last project. (The reasonable number of Test Cases varies from 500 to thousands. The number 1100 test cases can be completed in a 6 month project duration).

6.  What document did you refer to write the Test Cases?
Requirement document. (NOTE: It can also be Use Cases, or Design Document)
(Note: It depends company to company. In some companies, they use Use Cases. In some companies, they use Requirement Documents and in some companies, they use Design Document. However, in practical scenario, most of the companies have requirement document at least). This is the sample Requirement Document for Mercury Tours.

7.  Did you have a situation where you did not have any documents (no requirement document, no Use Cases, or no Design Document) and you had to write the Test Cases? How did you write the Test Cases?
Yes. I have been to that kind of scenarios several times. There were companies where they had no documents at all. In that case, I had to discuss the application scenario and functionalities with the Business Analysts or developer. I kind of prepared a document in consultation with Business Analysts and Developers and then started writing Test Cases.

8.  Have you worked with the Uses Cases before?
Yes. I have written Test Cases using Use Cases.
Can you tell me what a Use Case is?
A use case is a document that describes the user action and system response for a particular functionality. (you can also include, For example, in the Use Case given below, is a Use Case for login system for a company called Auto Parts One. This application is being developed by Digital Systems, Inc. The project name is Auto Parts One. However, the business owner (user) is a company called American Auto Parts of the North (imaginary name). Or
What is a Use Case and what does it include?
A Use Case is a document that describes the user action and system response for a particular functionality. It includes cover page, Revision History, Table of Contents, Floe of Events (normal flow and alternative flow), Exceptions, Special Requirements, Pre-conditions and Post-conditions.
Please see the Use Case:  Click this link: 2. Use_Case_Sample
This is how it looks (Next Page)  (coming soon)
For the complete Use Case sample, click here. (coming soon)
Now, Let us write Test Cases based on this Use Case. Remember, one Use Case can have many Test Cases. For example, look below:
For a complete Test Case for www.digitalsystemsllc.com, please click here.

9.  What is Software Development Life Cycle?
The systems (or software) development life cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application.
It includes the following different stages:
1.  Requirement phase
2.  Design phase
3.  Coding (programming)
4.  Testing
5.  Release (Production)
6.  Maintenance (Support)

10.  What is Business Requirement Document (BRD)?
It is a document that describes the details of the application functionalities which is required by the user. This document is written by the Business Analysts.
What is Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC)?
The testing of software has its own life cycle.  It starts with study and analyzing the requirements.  Here is the software testing life cycle:
1.  Requirement Study
2.  Test Planning
3.  Writing Test Cases
4.  Review the Test Cases
5.  Executing the Test Cases
6.  Bug logging and tracking
7.  Close or Reopen bugs
To see the diagram click here.
What is Business Design Document?
It is the document which describes the application functionalities of the user in detail. This document is the further details of the Business Requirement Document. This is a very crucial step in the SDLC. Sometimes the Business Requirement Document and Business Design Document can be lumped together to make only one Business Requirement Document.
What is Code Generation or Program?
Coding is the process of translating the Business Design Document into the machine readable form. If the design is done in detailed manner, the Code Generation can be done without much application. Programming tools like Compilers, Interpreters and Debuggers are used to generate the code thru different high level language like C, C++, Pascal, Java.

11.  What is a Module?
A ‘Module’ is a software component that has a specific task. It can be a ‘link’ which can go inside to its component detail.

12.  What is meant by Walk-thru meeting?
Before start working in a module and/or after accomplishing the testing of a module, the tester calls a meeting to disseminate his findings or to share his queries to other tester or leads of the company working on the same application that is called the Walk-thru meeting.

13.  What is Build?
When each of the different modules of software is prepared, they are put in a single folder by the Configuration Management Team (CMT) and it is called the ‘Build’.  In other word, the developers put their code in the shared location (folder) and all those code (modules) are combined together so that it is a complete application that works.
What is meant by the Build Deployment?
When the Build so prepared by the CMT is sent to different Test Environments, it is called the Build Deployment.

14.  What is Test Strategy?
A test strategy is an outline that describes the testing portion of the software development cycle. It is created to inform project managers, testers, and developers about some key issues of the testing process. This includes the testing objective, methods of testing new functions, total time and resources required for the project, and the testing environment.
The test strategy describes how the product risks of the stakeholders are mitigated at the test-level, which types of test are to be performed, and which entry and exit criteria apply. (source: Wikipedia)
The test strategy is created based on development design documents.. It is written by the Test Manager or Lead.
The following are some of the components that the Test Strategy includes:
1 Test Levels.  2 Roles and Responsibilities.  3 Environment Requirements.  4 Testing Tools. 5 Risks and Mitigation. 6 Test Schedule. 7 Regression Test Approach.  8 Test Groups. 9 Test Priorities. 10 Test Status Collections and Reporting. 11 Test Records Maintenance. 12 Requirements traceability matrix. 13 Test Summary
Click here to see how the Test Strategy looks like.
Are Test Plan and Test Strategy same type of document?
No. They are different documents. Test Plan is a document that collects and organizes test cases by functional areas and/or types of testing in a form that can be presented to the other teams and/or customer where as the Test Strategy is the documented approach to testing. Test Plan is prepared by the tester whereas the Test Strategy is prepared by the QA Manager or QA lead.
Both are important pieces of Quality Assurance processes since they help communicate the test approach scope and ensure test coverage while improving the efficiency of the testing effort.

15.  What does the Test Strategy include?
It includes introduction, scope, resource and schedule for test activities, acceptance criteria, test environment, test tools, test priorities, test planning, executing a test pass and types of test to be performed.

16.  What are different types of software testing?
Different types of testing carried out are:
1) Unit testing
2) Shakeout testing
3) Smoke testing (Ad-hoc testing)
4) Functional testing
5) Integration testing
6) Regression testing
7) System testing
Cool Load testing
9) Stress testing
10) Performance testing
11) User acceptance testing
12) Black box testing
13) White box testing
14) Alpha testing
15) Beta testing
Note: Except the Shakeout testing and Unit testing which are respectively done by the CMT and Coder/Developer, all other testing are done by the QA Engineer (Tester).
1) Unit testing: It is a test to check the code whether it is properly working or not as per the requirement.  It is done by the developers (Not testers).
2) Shakeout testing: This test is basically carried out to check the networking facility, database connectivity and the integration of modules. (It is done by the Configuration Team)
3) Smoke testing: It is an initial set of test to check whether the major functionalities are working or not and also to check the major breakdowns in the application. It is the preliminary test carried out by the SQA tester.

4) Functional testing: al It is a test to check whether each and every functionality of that application is working as per the requirement. It is major test where 80% of the tests are done. In this test, the Test Cases are ‘executed’.
5) Integration testing: It is a test to check whether all the modules are combined together or not and working successfully as specified in the requirement document.  
6) Regression testing: When a functionality is added to an application, we need to make sure that the newly added functionality does not break the application.  In order to make it sure, we perform a repeated testing which is called Regression Testing.  We also do regression testing after the developers fix the bugs.  See the video below for more understanding. (Courtesy of guru99.com).

7) System testing: Testing which is based on overall requirements specification and it covers all combined parts of a system. It is also a black box type of testing.
Cool Load testing: It is a test to check the user’s response time of number of users using any one scenario (single business process) of the same application at the same time.
9) Stress testing: In this type of testing the application is tested against heavy load such as complex numerical values, large number of inputs, large number of queries etc. which checks for the stress/load the applications can withstand.
10) Performance testing: It is a test to check the user’s response time of number of users using multiple scenarios (multiple business process) of the same application at the same time.
11) User acceptance testing: In this type of testing, the software is handed over to the user in order to find out if the software meets the user expectations and works as it is expected to.
12) Black box testing: It is test where a tester performs testing without looking into the code. OR A testing method where the application under test is viewed as a black box and the internal behavior of the program is completely ignored. Testing occurs based upon the external specifications. Also known as behavioral testing, since only the external behavior of the program is evaluated and analyzed.
13) White box testing: It is a test where a tester looks into the code and performs the testing.
14) Alpha testing: In this type of testing, the users are invited at the development center where they use the application and the developers note every particular input or action carried out by the user. Any type of abnormal behavior of the system is noted and rectified by the developers.
15) Beta testing: In this type of testing, the software is distributed as a beta version to the users and users test the application at their sites. As the users explore the software, in case if any exception/defect occurs that is reported to the developers.
What is Negative Testing?
Testing the system or application using negative data is called negative testing, for example, testing password entering 6 characters where it should be 8 characters should display a message.
When we test an application by putting negative values (instead of actual values), then the system should not allow the other values rather than the actual value.  The system should give an message that the value is not correct.  This is called negative testing.
Another example is, if a user tries to type a letter in a numeric field, the correct behavior in this case would be to display the “Incorrect data type, please enter a number” message. The purpose of negative testing is to detect such situations and prevent applications from crashing. Also, negative testing helps you improve the quality of your application and find its weak points. (source: Jerry Ruban)
What is the difference between Load Testing and Performance Testing?
Basically Load, Stress and Performance Testing are the same. However, Load testing is the test to check the users’ response time of number of users of any one scenario of the application whereas Performance Testing is the test to check the user response time for multiple scenario of the same application.

17.  What was the process of QA testing in your company where you worked for the last time? (or As far as the QA process is involved, what was the testing process in your company?)
The QA testing process that was followed in my last company where I worked was like this: First of all the Business Requirement Document was prepared as per the client’s requirement (with the muck-up screen shots). Then on the basis of the requirement document, Test Strategy, Test Plans and Test Cases were written in sequential order. Once the Build is made and deployed to the different testing environments where different types of testing were performed to check whether there are any defects.

18.  What is SQL?
SQL stands for Structured Query Language. SQL is an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard computer language for accessing and manipulating database systems. SQL statements are used to retrieve and update data in a database. SQL works with database programs like MS Access, DB2, Informix, MS SQL Server, Oracle, Sybase, etc.
Unfortunately, there are many different versions of the SQL language, but to be in compliance with the ANSI standard, they must support the same major keywords in a similar manner (such as SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE, INSERT, WHERE, and others).
Note: Most of the SQL database programs also have their own proprietary extensions in addition to the SQL standard.
Where do you write SQL query?
We write SQL queries using some these tools: Todd, Squirrel and Rapid SQL.
Do you really need to write SQL as a QA Engineer?
Yes.  You need to.  No matter whether it is a small company or big, they have a database and you need to validate the data by writing SQL queries going into the database.  The stronger you are in SQL, the better the chance of getting a job.
What are the basic commands in SQL+?
They are:
SQL>select *from tab;                           -to directory of database tables
SQL>ed                                                        -to edit the queries in the notepad
SQL>/                                                          -to run or execute the query command
SQL>create table ‘table name’           -to create a table
SQL>desc ‘table name’                          -to display table with column name with type
SQL>alter table ‘table name’              -to add a columnadd ‘column name’ ‘type’
SQL>alter table ‘table name’              -to modify the name and type of a columnmodify ‘column name’ ‘type’

What is the most common syntax you have used while writing SQL query?
Answer:  SELECT

What is a Primary Key?
In a database table, the Primary Key is a column which has a unique value for each of the row within that column. It can’t have NULL value.

What is a Unique Key?
In a database table, the Unique Key is a column which may or may not have null value of each of the row within that column.

What is Data?
Data is number, character or image which has some information.

What is Database?
It is collection of logically related data designed in a tabular form to meet the information needs of one or more users.


19.  What is Change Control (OR Change Request)?
Answer:  It is a document that describes the additional functionalities that are added after the Business Requirement Document is signed off. It can be updated in the old business requirement document or it can be a separate document.
(For example, in the Business Requirement Document, on the login page, there are User Name and Password fields. The owner of the software wants to add, “If you do not have User Name and Password, please click here.” This is a change. But this change came after the document is signed off by the Project Managers. Now this is a change control and comes as a separate document. (It is also called Change Request, Modification Request).

20. Have you written Change Control?

Answer: Yes. There was a situation where in one page of an application in my previous project, when the user clicked “Contact” link, it would pop up a different window (new separate window). But it was NOT the way it was described in the requirement document. In the requirement document, when the user clicks “Contact” link, then it should navigate to another page (Not a separate new window. Then was it a problem? Functionality wise, it was NOT a problem, however, on all the other pages, when the user clicked “Contact” link, the system would navigate to next page (not a separate window). So, it was NOT CONSISTENT with the other functionalities on the other pages. Therefore, it was a consistency issue. I reported this as a bug. But the Project Manager asked me to write it as a Change Control (because it requires more budget to fix this issue) so that he can address this issue at a later time. So I wrote this as a Change Control. (However, it is NOT a job of a tester to write change control. It’s the business analyst’s job)

20.  What is Backend Testing?
It is a test to check whether the data displayed in the GUI front end report format matches with the particular data in the original database.

21.  Have you done any Back End Testing and/or if you did, how did you do it in your last project?
Yes I did. I was working on Reports. When I was working in my last project, this was my scenario:
It was the case of testing one part of application used in the bank, where a customer comes to a bank’s front desk associate and ask for opening an account. The associate then asks for the personal information about the customer which, are the primary data, such as: First Name, Last Name, Date of Birth, Address and Social Security Number. The associate then put these primary data of that particular customer into the computer, which then afterwards batch-processed into the DATABASE in XML Format. Then the batch-processed data is sent to ETL (Extract-Transform-Load, which is software made by ‘AbInitio’ or ‘Informatica’) which processes the job to create a file to produce the report. The file is displayed to a GUI Front End report format with the help of Crystal Report/Business Object. In the GUI Front End report, let us say, if for January, the income of that person was displayed as $ 900.00, then my job was to validate this data by writing SQL queries whether this displayed data matches with the original input data in the database, being called as the Back End Testing.


How can you be sure that the query you wrote is correct? Or how do you know that the data you pulled from the database is correct?
Answer: I write SQL query based on the requirement document. In the requirement document, various conditions are given for the query. Based on those conditions, I write SQL query. Therefore, anything different from the requirement document is definitely a defect.

22.  What is XML?
-XML stands for EXtensible Markup Language.
-XML is a markup language much like HTML.
-XML was designed to describe data.
-XML tags are not predefined and we must define our own tags.
-XML uses a Document Type Definition (DTD) or an XML Schema to describe data.
-XML with a DTD or XML Schema is designed to be self-descriptive.
-XML is a W3C Recommendation.

23.  From you resume, I see that you have been working in one place for a very short period of time. This raises me questions why. Can you explain why?
Ans. As a consultant, I am hired for a certain period of time, normally for 6 months to 1 year. Once the project is over, I needed to move to another project. That’s why you see me in the resume jumping frequently here and there.

24  What do you do on your  first day of the work?
(Note:  The person who is asking this question probably wants to know how the real scenario of a working person at work. It is a hard question for those who has never worked in a work place as a Software Tester.)
Answer: On the first day, normally, we will be given a computer and support people will set up the User Name and Password for the computer.  If that is done already, then the QA Lead or QA Manager will give me a brief walk through of the documents (which documents are where), introduce to different team members (normally to the ones you will be working with).  Then your boss will ask you to step into work what needs to be done.  However, the first thing normally is, they will ask you to read the documents available for that project.
What do you do if you have any questions to ask? Who do you ask?
At the beginning, we all panic, what kind of questions to ask? What if they ask questions that I don’t know? Is it OK to ask questions? What do I do if I don’t know how to do the job I am assigned to? and so on.
As mentioned earlier, on the first day, your Manager will give you the system (computer) (They normally call system, not computer), will tell you what the User ID and Password is, where are the QA documents on the shared drive (or Network drive) are and so on. They will definitely ask you to read a lot of documents at the beginning (And you must read read and read those documents AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE. At the beginning, allocate about 2 hours extra at home for reading these documents. This habit will put you on the top of your job). These documents are normally design specification document (DSD). Different companies call it with different names, for example, Requirement Specification Document (RSD) and so on. After reading the documents, you will be asked to write Test Plans or Test Cases (Don’t panic. The Test Plans and Test Cases templates will be give by your manager or test lead and they will tell you what to do and how to do because different companies have different formats they follow. If they don’t have one, then you can always prepare a sample from this website (see on the right column) and give it to them. You will be hero)
Who do you ask?

Now let’s say you did not understand something while reading documents. Who are you going to ask? Answer-Business Analysts who wrote this document. If you have any other questions that you don’t know, you will be asking that to you friend first, if he/she is not able to answer, then ask this question to the Lead (or Manager). Do not ask too many questions (some people get irritated). Therefore, it is important to read read and read. That’s the only way to succeed.
If you have any questions in TestDirector, or QTP or any other automation tools, then there is a HELP menu as well as tutorial. Please go through these, read them before you ask any questions to anyone else.
What kind of questions should I ask in the meeting?
Nothing. My advice is, keep your mouth shut. Just listen. This is the best way to handle the job until you are confident enough to speak and you know what you are talking about. If they ask you some questions, then reply gently, wisely.

How to deal with your team members?

Most probably, you will not be the only tester in the team. There will be more than you. Sometimes, dealing with you team members is frustrating, specially when you are new. They try to ignore you. They want to show themselves smart. Don’t worry. Don’t blame them. This part of the human nature. Try to cope with it. Invite them when you go for coffee (in the coffee room in your office, don’t go outside), try to share your feelings and so on. It is all how you handle your friends. It is part of your daily activities, handle it gently. This is part of the situation I have gone through, my friends have gone through. I am just sharing this with you.
28. Have you used automation tools?
(Normally, when some one asks this question, we tend to think about automation functional testing tools, like WinRunner, LoadRunner, QTP (Quick Test Pro), Rational Robot, Experian and so on. But the reality is, even a Manual Tester also uses automation tools like bug tracking tools like TestDirector, ClearQuest, PVC Tracker and so on. Therefore, your answer should be Yes)

Answer: Yes. I have used TestDirector and ClearQuest as defect tracking tools. (Your answer is based on whether you have used automation tools specially for functional and load testing. If you have NOT used, but read about these tools, then you may be better off saying, “I know about the tools. I was involved in some of the testing using these tools, but would need some brush up in order to work independently.” I am saying this because these tools are difficult to tackle in the interview and have to know in depth. In order to pass the interview on functional automation tools, it may not be easy unless you really know the stuff. But, since there is not much to learn in ClearQuest and TestDirector, you only have to know what different types of fields are there in the defect logging window when writing a defect.)

29. When you log a defect using TestDirector (or ClearQuest) what fields do you see?

Answer: When we log a defect, we see Defect ID (it shows later in TestDirector), Summary (where we write short description of the defect), Description (long description of the defect), Detected by (Person who found the defect, (it’s you), Severity (meaning-is the defect critical? High? Medium? Or Low?), Date, Detected in Version, Priority, Project, Status, Assigned to and so on.
Click here to see the fields in TestDirector (go to page 24-27)
Click here to see the fields in ClearQuest (go to page 9)

30. Are you better working in a team or working alone?

Answer: I am a team player. I get along with team members very well. As far as the working is concerned, I can be equally productive in team or working alone.
(Caution: Never say, I like working alone. This could lead you to not getting a job as they are always looking for people who can get along with other people.)

31. Do you have any situations in the past where you have some arguments with your team members?
Answer: No. I never had that type of situation wherever I have worked.
(Even if you had one, it’s a good idea to say “No”. This could be a red flag, which might stop you from getting the job)

32. What do you like about a Manager? And what don’t you like?

Answer: The best thing I like about a Manager is that the Manager should be able to coordinate with the other teams so that we can get the updated documents, for example, updated requirements documents right away. A Manager who can efficiently in distributes the work to the team, without being biased and easily accessible and protective to his team for the right cause. As far as “what I don’t like” is concerned, I don’t like a manager who keeps coming to desk 10 times a day to check my work even if it is just a regular work. Once the responsibility is given, the team member should be trusted and let his work done.

33. Where do you see yourself in another 5 years?

Answer: I see myself a QA Lead in another 5 years.
(You can also say “QA Manager”, but since the QA Manager is taking your interview most of the time, they some times feel challenged. Therefore, it might be a good idea to limit you to QA Lead)

34. Why are you in QA?

Answer: I am in QA because I like this job.

35. Why do you like this job?

Answer: I like this job, because it is process oriented. Meaning that I get an opportunity to work from analyzing the requirement documents to writing test plans, test cases, testing the application, logging defects, retesting, preparing reports and finally testing in production as well. Therefore, I am involved from the very beginning to the end of the software development life cycle (SDLC) process. I like this.
Another reason is I like to find defects. I enjoy logging defects. The more defects I find, the happier I am.

36. How do you determine what to test in an application?

Answer: First of all we have the test cases (or test scripts) that are written based on the requirement document. This pretty much covers what functionalities to test. Therefore, looking at the test cases tells us what to test in the application.

37. If you have no documentation about the product, how do you test an application? Describe the process.

Answer: Well, this is a situation where I have come across several times. Some of the companies in my previous projects did not have any documents. In this case, I went to the Business Analyst and some times to developers to find out how exactly the functionalities work, how to navigate from one page to another page and so on. After getting a clear vision, I write test cases based on the conversation (which is a step by step procedure to test an application) and get ready for testing.



What do you do once you find a defect?
Once you find a defect, this is what we need to do:
1. Recreate the Defect: Once you find a defect, we must try to recreate (meaning that we should be able to reproduce it) at least 3 times so that we are sure that it is a defect. Some times, once we find it log it without recreating, may put us in a false situation (because sometimes the application does not behave in the same way). Therefore, it is important to recreate the same defect several times.
2. Attach the Screen Shot (supporting document): Once we confirm that it is a defect, and then it is a good idea to attach supporting documents when we log (write) a defect. For example, screen shot, requirement document etc. For instance, let us say that instead of “Continue” button on a page, there is a typo “Contiinuee”. Now, we will make a screen shot of this page (To make screen shot, press “Print Screen” button on the keyboard, and open a Word document, and Click Edit on the Word document and “Past” it. You will see the screen now) Now, a tester needs to write defects in easy and clear language to make all the developers to understand easily.
3. Log the Defect: Now, the next step is, we need to log it. Depending on the company what kind of tools they are using (for example, some companies use TestDirector to log defects, some companies use Rational ClearQuest, some use PVC Tracker and so on). If the company is small and cannot afford these expensive tools, then they may simply use Excel sheet to log defects. We log the defect.

38. What are the basic elements you put in a defect?

Answer: Basic elements we put in a defect are: SEVERITY, PRIORITY, CREATED BY, VERSION NO, HEADER, DESCRIPTION OF THE DEFECT where we write how to recreate a defect, in what module the defect is found, Status, and so on.

39. What is the biggest bug you have ever found?

Answer: Well, there are many big defects I have found in various projects. For example, in the last project, on a page, there was a button called “More Information”. Once the user clicked that button, the system would open a new window (pop up).
We could close the new window in 3 ways:
-By clicking X at the top right corner of the page
-By clicking “Close” button on the page
-By pressing combination keys (Alt+F4) on the key board
Although the combination key (Alt+F4) was not mentioned in the test case, I just wanted to try how the application reacts when Alt+F4 is pressed. Then I pressed Alt+F4. The result was a disaster-the application crashed (broke). The application disappeared from the computer monitor. Since it was the last day of testing for us, it brought chaos in our Managers, Leads and the whole teams. Finally, the developers disabled Alt+F4 as a temporary solution and the application went into production.

40. How do you make sure that it is quality software?

Answer: There is a certain process how the quality of software is guaranteed (ensured). If is defined by the ‘exit criteria’. (What it means is, a QA Manager writes a document called Test Strategy. This Test Strategy defines the ‘exit criteria’.) Exit Criteria gives the measurement, for example, in order to confirm the quality, how many critical defects, high defects, medium defect and low defect are acceptable? These are all defined in the exit criteria. (Normally in practice, for a quality software, there should no critical defects (0 critical), no high defect (0 high), no medium defect (0 medium) and may be 1 low defect)

41. As a QA Tester, can you tell me the situation when you felt the most proud of it?

Answer: When I find the defect that normally others don’t find, then I feel very proud. For example, there were situations where I found bugs that crashed the whole system at the end of testing phase. I tried the scenarios where the scenarios were NOT mentioned in the test cases. For example, we can close the windows by clicking X on the page, with “Close” button and so on. But there is another way that you can close the window, by pressing Alt+F4 on the keyboard. Not many testers test this scenario. I have done this in my last two projects. Both the time, the application crashed which became a big issue. I felt proud.

42. What made you to choose testing career?

Answer: I am a very detailed oriented person and I like process-oriented job. The way QA process works is just the kind of work I like. For example, analyzing requirement documents, attending walk-through meetings, writing test plans, writing test cases, executing the test cases (or running the test cases) testing the application, logging defects, retesting them and so on. I think I really like the process and that’s why I chose this career.




43. When should testing start in a project? Why?

Answer: We should start testing as soon as the following things are ready:
-Test Data are ready
-Build (all the developers have coded their code and merged them
together)
-Test Environment (servers, network etc) is set up and ready
-When the manager asks us to go ahead and start testing.

44. Let us say you have a web application to test. How do you go about testing it? What is the process?

Answer: First of all, I will look at the requirement documents (or design document in some companies). The requirement document will tell us what the functionalities in the application (software) are. Once I analyze the requirement documents (one module=one requirement document). After that, I will write test plans for each module (one module =one test plan). Then after the test plan is complete, I will write test cases (One module can have hundreds, even thousands test cases). Once the test cases are ready and the application is ready (or once the build is ready), then I will start testing. Before I start testing, however, I will make sure the test environments, test data and defect logging tools are in place. This is how I will go about testing an application.

45. What is a “bug?”

Answer: A bug is a bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer code (program) that prevents it from behaving as intended (e.g., producing an incorrect result). (You can also add this: When the expected results (accordingly to the requirement documents) don’t match with the actual results (while testing), then it is considered a bug)

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