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More questions on Manual Testing Interview

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More questions on Manual Testing Interview Empty More questions on Manual Testing Interview

Post by QA-Opening on Sun Sep 06, 2015 7:44 pm

Q1. What is Requirement Traceability Matrix?
The Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) is a tool to make sure that project requirement remain same throughout the whole development process. RTM is used in the development process because of following reasons:
• To determine whether the developed project is meet the requirements of the user.
• To determine all the requirements given by the user
• To make sure the application requirement can be fulfilled in the verification process.
Q2. What is difference between Pilot and Beta testing?
The differences between these two are listed below:
• A beta test when the product is about to release to the end user whereas pilot testing take place in the earlier phase of the development cycle.
• In beta testing application is given to a few user to make sure that application meet the user requirement and does not contain any showstopper whereas in case of pilot testing team member give their feedback to improve the quality of the application.
Q3. Describe how to perform Risk analysis during software testing?
Risk analysis is the process of identifying risk in the application and prioritizing them to test. Following are some of the risks:
1. New Hardware.
2. New Technology.
3. New Automation Tool.
4. Sequence of code delivery.
5. Availability of application test resources.
We prioritize them into three categories these are:
• High magnitude: Impact of the bug on the other functionality of the application.
• Medium: it can be tolerable in the application but not desirable.
• Low: it can be tolerable. This type of risk has no impact on the company business.
Q4. What is Silk Test?
Silk Test is a tool developed for performing the regression and functionality testing of the application. Silk Test a tool is used when we are testing the applications which are based on Window, Java, web or traditional client/server. Silk Test help in preparing the test plan and management of those test plans, to provide the direct accessing of the database and validation of the field.
Q5. What is difference between Master Test Plan and Test Plan.
The differences between Master Plan and Test Plan are given below:
• Master Test Plan contains all the testing and risk involved area of the application where as Test case document contains test cases.
• Master Test plan contain all the details of each and every individual tests to be run during the overall development of application whereas test plan describe the scope, approach, resources and schedule of performing test.
• Master Test plan contain the description of every tests that is going to be performed on the application where as test plan only contain the description of few test cases. during the testing cycle like Unit test, System test, beta test etc
• Master Test Plan is created for all large projects but when it is created for the small project then we called it as test plan.
Q6. How to deal with not reproducible bug?
Ans. A bug cannot be reproduced for following reasons:
1. Low memory.
2. Addressing to non available memory location.
3. Things happening in a particular sequence.
Tester can do following things to deal with not reproducible bug:
• Includes steps that are close to the error statement.
• Evaluate the test environment.
• Examine and evaluate test execution results.
• Resources & Time Constraints must be kept in point.
Q7.What is the difference between coupling and cohesion?
The difference between coupling and cohesion is discussed below:
• Cohesion is the degree which is measure dependency of the software component that combines related functionality into a single unit whereas coupling means that binding the related functionality into different unit.
• Cohesion deals with the functionality that related different process within the single module where as coupling deals with how much one module is dependent on the other modules within the application.
• It is good to increase the cohesion between the software whereas increasing coupling is avoided.
Q8. What is the role of QA in a project development?
The role of Quality Assurance is discussed below:
• QA team is responsible for monitoring the process to be carried out for development.
• Responsibilities of QA team are planning testing execution process.
• QA Lead creates the time tables and agrees on a Quality Assurance plan for the product.
• QA team communicated QA process to the team members.
• QA team ensures traceability of test cases to requirements.
Q9. When do you choose automated testing over manual testing?
This choice between automated testing over manual testing can be based upon following factors:
1. Frequency of use of test case
2. Time Comparison (automated script run much faster than manual execution.)
3. Reusability of Automation Script
4. Adaptability of test case for automation.
5. Exploitation of automation tool
Q10. What are the key challenges of software testing?
Following are some challenges of software testing:
1. Application should be stable enough to be tested.
2. Testing always under time constraint
3. Understanding the requirements.
4. Domain knowledge and business user perspective understanding.
5. Which tests to execute first?
6. Testing the Complete Application.
7. Regression testing.
8. Lack of skilled testers.
9. Changing requirements.
10. Lack of resources, tools and training
Q11. What is difference between QA, QC and Software Testing?
Quality Assurance (QA): QA refers to the planned and systematic way of monitoring the quality of process which is followed to produce a quality product. QA tracks the outcomes and adjusts the process to meet the expectation.
Quality Control (QC): Concern with the quality of the product. QC finds the defects and suggests improvements. The process set by QA is implemented by QC. The QC is the responsibility of the tester.
Software Testing: is the process of ensuring that product which is developed by the developer meets the user requirement. The motive to perform testing is to find the bugs and make sure that they get fixed.
Q12. What is concurrent user hits in load testing?
When the multiple users, without any time difference, hits on a same event of the application under the load test is called a concurrent user hit. The concurrency point is added so that multiple Virtual User can work on a single event of the application. By adding concurrency point, the virtual users will wait for the other Virtual users which are running the scripts, if they reach early. When all the users reached to the concurrency point, only then they start hitting the requests.
Q13. What is difference between Front End Testing and Back End testing?
The differences between front and back end testing are:
• Front End Testing is performed on the Graphical User Interface (GUI).whereas Back End Testing involves databases testing.
• Front end consist of web site look where user can interact whereas in case of back end it is the database which is required to store the data.
• When ender user enters data in GUI of the front end application, then this entered data is stored in the database. To save this data into the database we write SQL queries.
Q14. What is Automated Testing?
The process of performing testing automatically which reduces the human intervention this is automation testing. The automation testing is carried out with the help of the some automation tool like QTP, Selenium, WinRunner etc. In automation testing we use a tool that runs the test script to test the application; this test script can be generated manually or automatically. When testing is completed then tools automatically generate the test report and report.
Q15. What is Testware?
The testware is:
• The subset of software which helps in performing the testing of application.
• Testware are required to plan, design, and execute tests. It contains documents, scripts, inputs, expected results, set-up and additional software or utilities used in testing.
• Testware is term given to combination of all utilities and application software that required for testing a software package.
Testware is special because it has:
1. Different purpose
2. Different metrics for quality and
3. Different users
Q16.What is Exhaustive Testing?
Exhaustive Testing, as the name suggests is very exhaustive. Exhaustive testing means to test every component in the application with every possible number of inputs. According to Principles of testing Exhaustive Testing is Impossible because exhaustive testing requires more time and effort to test the application for all possible number of inputs. This may lead to high cost and delay in the release of the application.
Q17. What is Gray Box Testing?
Grey box testing is the hybrid of black box and white box testing. In gray box testing, test engineer has the knowledge of coding section of the component and designs test cases or test data based on system knowledge. In this tester has knowledge of code, but this is less than the knowledge of white box testing. Based on this knowledge the test cases are designed and the software application under test treats as a black box & tester test the application from outside.
Q18. What is Integration Testing?
Integration testing is black box testing. Integration testing focuses on the interfaces between units, to ensure that units work together to complete a specify task. The purpose of integration testing is to confirm that different components of the application interact with each other. Test cases are developed with the purpose of exercising the interfaces between the components. Integration testing is considered complete, when actual results and expected results are same. Integration testing is done after unit testing. There are mainly three approaches to do integration testing:
• Top-down Approach tests the components by integrating from top to bottom.
• Bottom-up approach It takes place from the bottom of the control flow to the higher level components
• Big bang approach In this are different module are joined together to form a complete system and then testing is performed on it.
Q19. What is Scalability Testing?
Scalability testing is testing performed in order to enhanced and improve the functional and performance capabilities of the application. So that, application can meets requirements of the end users. The scalability measurements is done by doing the evaluating the application performance in load and stress conditions. Now depending upon this evaluation we improve and enhanced the capabilities of the application.
Q20. What is Software Requirements Specification?
• A software requirements specification is a document which acts as a contract between the customer and the supplier.
• This SRS contain all the requirement of the end user regarding that application. SRS can be used as a communication medium between the customer and the supplier.
• The developer and tester prepare and examine the application based on the requirements written in the SRS document.
• The SRS documented is prepared by the Business Analyst by taking all the requirements for the customer.
Q21. What is Storage Testing?
In Storage Testing we test those functionalities of the application which is responsible for storing the data into database. The data entered by the end user in GUI or front end, is the same data which is stored in the database. The storage testing determines that the data taken from the front end of the application is stored in correct place and in correct manner in the database.
Q22. What is Stress Testing?
Stress testing tests the software with a motive to check that the application do not crashes if we increase the stress on the application by increasing the large number of user working on the application. We can also apply the stress on the application firing the lots of process which cannot be handled by the application. We perform the stress testing on the application evaluate the application capabilities at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements to determine. Generally, this is a type of performance testing performed in a very high level of load and stress condition.
Q23. What is Test Harness?
A test harness is a collection of software and test data required to test the application by running it in different testing condition like stress, load, data- driven, and monitoring its behavior and outputs. Test Harness contains two main parts:
• Test execution engine
• Test script repository
Automation testing is the use of a tool to control the execution of tests and compare the actual results with the expected results. It also involves the setting up of test pre-conditions.
Q24. Can you define test driver and test stub?
• The Stub is called from the software component to be tested. It is used in top down approach.
• The driver calls a component to be tested. It is used in bottom up approach.
• Both test stub and test driver are dummy software components.
We need test stub and test driver because of following reason:
• Suppose we want to test the interface between modules A and B and we have developed only module A. So we cannot test module A but if a dummy module is prepare, using that we can test module A.
• Now module B cannot send or receive data from module A directly so, in these cases we have to transfer data from one module to another module by some external features. This external feature used is called Driver.
Q25.What is good design?
Design refers to functional design or internal design. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear, understandable, easily modifiable, and maintainable; is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability, and works correctly when implemented. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements.
Q26. What makes a good QA or Test manager?
A good QA or Test manager should have following characteristics:
• Knowledge about Software development process
• Improve the teamwork to increase productivity
• Improve cooperation between software, test, and QA engineers
• To improvements the QA processes.
• Communication skills.
• able to conduct meetings and keep them focused
Q27. What is Manual scripted Testing and Manual Support testing?
Manual Scripted Testing: Testing method in which the test cases are designed and reviewed by the team before executing it. It is done by manual testing teams.
Manual-Support Testing: Testing technique that involves testing of all the functions performed by the people while preparing the data and using these data from automated system. it is conducted by testing teams
Q28. What is Fuzz testing, backward compatibility testing and assertion testing?
Fuzz Testing: testing application by entering invalid, unexpected, or random data to the application this testing is performed to ensure that application is not crashing when entering incorrect and unformatted data.
Backward Compatibility Testing: Testing method which examines performance of latest software with older versions of the test environment.
Assertion Testing: Type of testing consisting in verifying if the conditions confirm the product requirements.
Q29. How does a client or server environment affect testing?
There are lots of environmental factors that affect the testing like speed of data transfer data transfer, hardware, and server etc while working with client or server technologies, testing will be extensive. When we have time limit, we do the integration testing. In most of the cases we prefer the load, stress and performance testing for examine the capabilities of the application for the client or server environment.
Q30. What are the categories of defects?
There are three main categories of defects:
• Wrong: The requirements are implemented incorrectly in the application.
• Missing: When requirement given by the customer and application is unable to meet those application.
• Extra: A requirement incorporated into the product that was not given by the end customer. This is always a variance from the specification, but may be an attribute desired by the user of the product.

1. What is baseline testing?
Baseline testing is the process of running a set of tests to capture performance information. Baseline testing use the information collected to made the changes in the application to improve performance and capabilities of the application. Baseline compares present performance of application with its own previous performance.
2. What is benchmark testing?
Benchmarking testing is the process of comparing application performance with respect to industry standard which is given by some other organization. Benchmark informs us where our application stands with respect to others. Benchmark compares our application performance with other company’s application’s performance.
3. What is verification and validation?
Verification: process of evaluating work-products of a development phase to determine whether they meet the specified requirements for that phase.
Validation: process of evaluating software during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it specified requirements.
Difference between Verification and Validation:
• Verification is Static Testing where as Validations is Dynamic Testing.
• Verification takes place before validation.
• Verification evaluates plans, document, requirements and specification, where as Validation evaluates product.
• Verification inputs are checklist, issues list, walkthroughs and inspection ,where as in Validation testing of actual product.
• Verification output is set of document, plans, specification and requirement documents where as in Validation actual product is output.
4. Explain Branch Coverage and Decision Coverage.
Branch Coverage is testing performed in order to ensure that every branch of the software is executed atleast. To perform the Branch coverage testing we take the help of the Control Flow Graph.
Decision coverage testing ensures that every decision taking statement is executed atleast once.
Both decision and branch coverage testing is done to ensure the tester that no branch and decision taking statement, will not lead to failure of the software.
To Calculate Branch Coverage:
Branch Coverage = Tested Decision Outcomes / Total Decision Outcomes.
5. What is difference between Retesting and Regression testing?
The differences between Retesting and Regression testing are below:
• Retesting is done to verify defect fix previous in now working correctly where as regression is perform to check if the defect fix have not impacted other functionality that was working fine before doing changes in the code.
• Retesting is specific and is performed on the bug which is fixed where as in regression is not be always specific to any defect fix it is performed when any bug is fixed.
• Retesting concern with executing those test cases that are failed earlier where as regression concern with executing test cases that was passed in earlier builds.
• Retesting has higher priority over regression.
6. What is Mutation testing & when can it be done?
Mutation testing is a performed to find out the defect in the program. It is performed to find put bugs in specific module or component of the application. Mutation testing is based on two assumptions:
• Competent programmer hypothesis: according this hypothesis we suppose that program write the correct code of the program.
• Coupling effect: according to this effect collection of different set of test data can also find large and complex bugs.
In this testing we insert few bugs into program to examine the optimal test inputs.
7. What is severity and priority of bug? Give some example.
Priority: concern with application from the business point of view.
It answers: How quickly we need to fix the bug? Or how soon the bug should get fixed?
Severity: concern with functionality of application.
How much the bug is affecting the functionality of the application?

• High Priority and Low Severity:
If a company logo is not properly displayed on their website.
• High Priority and High Severity:
Suppose you are doing online shopping and filled payment information, but after submitting the form, you get a message like "Order has been cancelled."
• Low Priority and High Severity:
If we have a typical scenario in which the application get crashed, but that scenario exists rarely.
• Low Priority and Low Severity:
There is a mistake like "You have registered success" instead of successfully, success is written.
8. Explain bug leakage and bug release.
Bug Leakage: When customer or end user discovered a bug which can be detected by the testing team. Or when a bug is detected which can be detected in pervious build then this is called as Bug Leakage.
Bug release: is when a build is handed to testing team with knowing that defect is present in the release. The priority and severity of bug is low. It is done when customer want the application on the time. Customer can tolerate the bug in the released then the delay in getting the application and the cost involved in removing that bug. These bugs are mentioned in the Release Notes handed to client for the future improvement chances.
9. What is alpha and beta testing?
Alpha testing: is performed by the IN-House developers. After alpha testing the software is handed over to software QA team, for additional testing in an environment that is similar to the client environment.

Beta testing: beta testing becomes active. It is performed by end user. So that they can make sure that the product is bug free or working as per the requirement. IN-house developers and software QA team perform alpha testing. The public, a few select prospective customers or the general public performs beta testing.
10. What is Monkey testing?
Monkey testing is a type of Black Box Testing used mostly at the Unit Level. In this tester enter the data in any format and check the software is not crashing. In this testing we use Smart monkey and Dumb monkey.
• Smart monkeys are used for load and stress testing, they will help in finding the bugs. They are very expensive to develop.
• Dumb monkey, they are important for basic testing. They help in finding those bugs which are having high severity. Dumb monkey are less expensive as compare to Smart monkeys.
Example: In phone number filed Symbols are entered.
11. What is test driver and test stub?
• The Stub is called from the software component to be tested. It is used in top down approach.
• The driver calls a component to be tested. It is used in bottom up approach.
• Both test stub and test driver are dummy software components.
We need test stub and test driver because of following reason:
• Suppose we want to test the interface between modules A and B and we have developed only module A. So we cannot test module A but if a dummy module is prepare, using that we can test module A.
• Now module B cannot send or receive data from module A directly so, in these cases we have to transfer data from one module to another module by some external features. This external feature used is called Driver.
12. What is random testing?
When tester performs testing of application by using random input from the input domain of the system, this is Random Testing. Random testing involve following procedures:
• Selection of input domain.
• Randomly selecting any input from input domain.
• Using these test input testing of application is performed.
• The results are compared to the system specification. The test is a failure if any input leads to incorrect results, otherwise it is a success.
13. What is Agile Testing?
Agile Testing means to quickly validation of the client requirements and make the application of good quality user interface. When the build is released to the testing team, testing of the application is started to find the bugs. As a Tester, we need to focus on the customer or end user requirements. We put the efforts to deliver the quality product in spite of short time frame which will further help in reducing the cost of development and test feedbacks will be implemented in the code which will avoid the defects coming from the end user.
14. Describe Use Case Testing.
Use Case: A use case is a description of the process which is performed by the end user for a particular task. Use case contains a sequence of step which is performed by the end user to complete a specific task or a step by step process that describe how the application and end user interact with each other. Use case is written by the user point of view.
Use case Testing: the use case testing uses this use case to evaluate the application. So that, the tester can examines all the functionalities of the application. Use case testing cover whole application,
15. What is the purpose of test strategy?
We need Test Strategy for the following reasons:
1. To have a signed, sealed, and delivered document, where the document contains details about the testing methodology, test plan, and test cases.
2. Test strategy document tells us how the software product will be tested.
3. Test strategy document helps to review the test plan with the project team members.
4. It describes the roles, responsibilities and the resources required for the test and schedule.
5. When we create a test strategy document, we have to put into writing any testing issues requiring resolution.
The test strategy is decided first, before lower level decisions are made on the test plan, test design, and other testing issues
16. Explain bug life cycle.
Bug Life Cycle:
• When a tester finds a bug .The bug is assigned with NEW or OPEN status,
• The bug is assigned to development project manager who will analyze the bug .He will check whether it is a valid defect. If not valid bug is rejected then status is REJECTED.
• If not, next the defect is checked whether it is in scope. When bug is not part of the current release .Such defects are POSTPONED
• Now, Tester checks whether a similar defect was raised earlier. If yes defect is assigned a status DUPLICATE
• When bug is assigned to developer. During this stage bug is assigned a status IN-PROGRESS
• Once code is fixed. Defect is assigned a status FIXED
• Next the tester will re-test the code. In case the test case passes the defect is CLOSED
• If the test case fails again the bug is RE-OPENED and assigned to the developer. That’s all to Bug Life Cycle.
17. What is Error guessing and Error seeding?
Error Guessing is a test case design technique where the tester has to guess what faults might occur and to design the tests to represent them.
Error Seeding is the process of adding known faults intentionally in a program for the reason of monitoring the rate of detection & removal and also to estimate the number of faults remaining in the program.
18. Explain Compatibility testing with an example.
Compatibility testing is to evaluate the application compatibility with the computing environment like Operating System, Database, Browser compatibility, backwards compatibility, computing capacity of the Hardware Platform and compatibility of the Peripherals. Example, If Compatibility testing is done on a Game application, before installing a game on a computer, its compatibility is checked with the computer specification that whether it is compatible with the computer having that much of specification or not.
19. What is Test Harness?
A test harness is a collection of software and test data required to test the application by running it in different testing condition like stress, load, data- driven, and monitoring its behavior and outputs. Test Harness contains two main parts:
• Test execution engine
• Test script repository
Automation testing is the use of a tool to control the execution of tests and compare the actual results with the expected results. It also involves the setting up of test pre-conditions.
20. Explain Statement coverage.
Statement Coverage is a metric used in White Box Testing. Statement coverage is used to ensure that all the statement in the program code is executed at least once. The advantages of Statement Coverage are:
• Verifies that written code is correct.
• Measures the quality of code written.
• Determine the control flow of the program.
• To Calculate Statement Coverage:
• Statement Coverage = Statements Tested / Total No. of Statements.
21. What are the types of testing?
There are two types of testing:
• Static testing: Static testing is a technique used in the earlier phase of the development life cycle. The code error detection and execution of program is not concern in this type of testing. Also known as non-execution technique. The Verification of the product is performed in this testing technique like Code Reviews, Inspections, Walkthroughs are mostly done in this stage of testing.
• Dynamic testing: Dynamic Testing is concern with the execution of the software. This technique is used to test the dynamic behavior of the code. Most of the bugs are identified using this technique. These are the Validation activities. It uses different methodologies to perform testing like Unit Tests, Integration Tests, System Tests and Acceptance Testing, etc.
22. Explain User acceptance testing.
User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is performed by the end users on the applications before accepting the application.
Alpha testing: is performed by the IN-House developers. After alpha testing the software is handed for the Beta testing phase, for additional testing in an environment that is similar to the client environment.
Beta testing: is performed by the end user. So that they can make sure that the product is bug free or working as per the requirement. IN-house developers and software QA team perform alpha testing. The public, a few select prospective customers or the general public performs beta testing.

Gamma Testing: Gamma Testing is done when the software is ready for release with specified requirements. This testing is done directly by skipping all the in-house testing activities.
23. What should be done after a bug is found?
After finding the bug the first step is bug to be locked in bug report. Then this bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. After the bug is fixes by the developer, fixes should be re-tested, and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere.
24. What if the software is so buggy it can't really be tested at all?
In this situation is for the testers to go through the process of reporting of bugs with the focus being on critical bugs. Since this type of problem can severely affect schedules, and indicates deeper problems in the software development process project managers should be notified, and provided with some documentation.
25. What are the types of maintenance?
There are four types of maintenance. There are:
• Corrective Maintenance
• Adaptive Maintenance
• Perfective Maintenance
• Preventive Maintenance
26. What are the advantages of waterfall model?
The advantages of the waterfall model are:
• Simple to implement and required fewer amounts of resources.
• After every phase output is generate.
• Help in methods of analysis, design, coding, testing and maintenance.
• Preferred in projects where quality is more important than schedule and cost.
• Systematic and sequential model.
• Proper documentation of the project.
27. What is Rapid Application Development model (RAD)?
The RAD model Rapid Application development (RAD) is incremental software development process models that focus on the development of the project in very short time. It is enhanced version of Waterfall model. It is proposed when requirements and solutions can be made independently system or software components, which is developed by different teams. After these smaller system components are developed, they are integrated to produce the large software system solution.
28. What are the advantages of black box testing?
The advantages of this type of testing include:
• Developer and tester are independent of each other.
• The tester does not need knowledge of any programming languages.
• The test is done from the point-of-view of the user.
• Test cases can be designed when specifications are complete.
• Testing helps to identify issues related to functional specifications.
29. What is software review?
A software review can be defined as a filter for the software engineering process. The purpose of any review is to discover errors in the analysis, design, and coding, testing and implementation phases of the software development cycle. The other purpose of a review is to see whether procedures are applied uniformly and in a manageable manner. It is used to check the process followed to develop the software is right.
30. What is reverse engineering?
By analyzing a final product the process of recreating a design is known as reverse engineering. Reverse engineering is the process followed in order to find difficult, unknown, and hidden information about a software system. It is important when software products lack proper documentation, and are highly unstructured, or their structure has degraded through a series of maintenance efforts. Maintenance activities cannot be performed without a complete understanding of the software system.
31. What is data flow diagram?
The Data Flow Diagram gives us information of the flow of data within the application.
• The DFD can be used to analyze the design of the application.
• It is a graphical representation of the structure of the data.
• A developer draws context level DFD first showing interaction between the different components of the application.
• DFD help in developing the software by clarifying the requirements and major functionalities.
• DFDs show the flow of data through a system.
• It is an important modeling tool that allows us to picture a system as a network of functional processes.
32. What is exploratory testing?
Exploratory testing: means testing an application without a test plan and test script. In exploring testing test explore the application on the basis on his knowledge. The tester has no knowledge about the application previously. He explores the application like an end user and try to use it. While using the application his main motive is to find the bugs which are in the application.
33. What is compatibility testing?
Compatibility testing is a type of testing used to find out the compatibility between the application and platform on which application works, web browsers, hardware, operating systems etc. Good software must be compatible with different hardware, web browser and database.
34. What is SRS and BRS document?
Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is documented form of the requirement of the customer. It consists of all requirement of the customer regarding that software to be developed. The SRS document work as agreement between the company and the customer consisting of all functional and non functional requirements.
Business Requirement Specification (BRS) are the requirements as described by the businesspeople. The business tells “what” they want for the application to do. In simple word BRS contain the functional requirement of the application.
35. Can you explain V model in manual testing?
V model: it is enhanced version of waterfall model where each level of the development lifecycle is verified before moving to next level. In this testing starts at the very beginning. By testing we mean verification by means of reviews and inspections, static testing. Each level of the development lifecycle has a corresponding test plan. A test plan is developed to prepare for the testing of the products of that phase. Be developing the test plans, we can also define the expected results for testing of the products for that level as well as defining the entry and exit criteria for each level.
36. What is Concurrency Testing?
Concurrency Testing is used to know the effects of using the software by different users at the same time. In this type of testing we have multiple users performing the exact same requests at the same time. It helps in identifying and measuring the problems in Response time, levels of locking and deadlocking in the application. For this we use Load runner to create VUGen (Virtual User Generator) is used to add the number of concurrent users and perform operation on the application on the same time.
37. What is an inspection in software testing?
An inspection is more formalized than a walkthrough. Insecpection technique involves 3 to 8 team member consisting of a moderator, reader, and a recorder to take notes. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements or a test plan, and the purpose is to find problems and see what is missing, most problems will be found during this preparation. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. It is one of the most cost effective methods of ensuring quality.
38. A Form has four mandatory fields to be entered before you Submit. How many numbers of test cases are required to verify this? And what are they?
Five test cases are required to test:
1. Enter the data in all the mandatory fields and submit, should not display error message.
2. Enter data in any two mandatory fields and summit, should issue an error message.
3. Do not enter in any of the fields should issue an error message.
4. If the fields accept only number, enter numbers in the fields and submit, should not issue an error message, try to enter only in two fields should issue an error message, and enter alphabets in two fields and number in other two fields it should issue an error message.
5. If the fields do not accept special characters, then enter the characters and submit it.
40. What is Cyclomatic Complexity?
Cyclomatic complexity is used to measure the complexity of the software using the control flow graph of the software. It is a graphical representation, consisting of following:
• NODE: statement of the program is taken as node of the graph.
• Edges: the flow of command is denoted by edges. Edges are used to connect two node , this show flow of control from one node to other node in the program.
Using this node and edges we calculated the complexity of the program.
This determines the minimum number of inputs you need to test all ways to execute the program.


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